Era 4: expansion and reform (1801-1861)




  • Joy Hakim, The New Nation (Book Number 4)

  • James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (Oxford History of the United States)

  • Theda Perdue and Michael Green, The Cherokee Removal: A Brief History with Documents (The Bedford Series in History and Culture)

Era 4: Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)

  • Era Four One-page Guide (PDF) (This is a one page document for teachers to reference when creating their lesson plans. By checking the standards that apply, teachers can show how their lessons meet district, state, and national curriculum Standards.)

  • Era Four Summary (PDF)


  • Era Four: Standard Guide (PDF)


Pinterest Board for this Era

The West as U.S.

Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way (mural study, U.S. Capitol) 1861 Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze Smithsonian American Art Museum

Links and Resources


Andrew Jackson, "The Golden Age" of Democracy and the Market Revolution

  • Altshuler, Glenn C. and Suart M. Blumin. "The Limits of Political Engagement in Antebellum America ." Journal of American History, 1997 84(3): 855-885.

  • Remini, Robert V. Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Democracy, 1833-1846. New York : Oxford Press, 1991.

  • Watson, Harry L. Andrew Jackson vs. Henry Clay: Democracy and Development in Antebellum America. Boston : Bedford/St. Martins, 1998.


Indian Removal and the Story of Major Ridge

  • King, C. Richard and Charles Fruehling Springwood. Team Spirits: The Native American Mascots Controversy. Lincoln : University of Nebraska Press, 2001.

  • Perdue, Theda and Michael Green. The Cherokee Removal: A Brief History with Documents.

  • Perdue, Theda. Slavery and the Evolution of Cherokee Society, 1540-1866. Knoxville : University of Tennessee Press, 2002.

  • Rogin, Michael Paul. Fathers and Children: Andrew Jackson and the Subjugation of the American Indian. New York : Knopf, 1975.

  • Wilkins, Thurman. Cherokee Tragedy: The Ridge Family and the Decimation of a People. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986.

  • Wildinson, David Maria. Oblivious Altar: A Novel of Courage. New York : New American Library, 2002.

MCHCE's mission to provide teachers with free, relevant, and accurate resources is realized through this website, which is also a gateway to colloquium materials provided at past TAH and MCHCE professional development programs. Additionally, through participation in MCHCE Professional Development, teachers are encouraged to create classroom curriculum from the content presented. These materials are then shared to teachers through our website. 


We have tried to follow a strict copyright policy. If you see an item posted that you feel infringes upon copyright, please Contact MCHCE immediately and the item will be removed.