Era 7: The progressive era (1890-1930)

Era 7: The Emergence of Modern America (1890-1930)

  • Era Seven One-page Guide (PDF) (This is a one page document for teachers to reference when creating their lesson plans. By checking the standards that apply, teachers can show how their lessons meet district, state, and national curriculum Standards.)


  • Era Seven Summary PDF


  • Era Seven: Standard Guide PDF

Pinterest Board for this Era

The West as U.S.

The Awakening Map by Hy Mayer Feb. 20, 1915. Library of Congress The color gold and the flaming torch moving from west to east symbolized the spread of sunlight and enlightenment in the early 20th century suffrage movement.

Presentation Links


Links and Resources

Butte, Montana


Gilded Age and Progressive Era Resources

  • H-SHGAPE: Excellent Site! Gilded Age and Progressive Era Resources are separated into topic areas with fantastic links to primary sources, art, syllabi, politics, the transformation of the West--anything and everything for this time period!

Library of Congress


Women and Suffrage


Spanish-American War

Links and Resources


The Progressive Era


America Becomes a World Power






  • Mary Murphy, Hope in Hard Times

  • Emily Rosenberg, Spreading the American Dream: American Economic and Cultural Expansion, 1890-1945

  • Frederick Drake, Engagement in Teaching History: Theory and Practices for Middle and Secondary Teachers



  • James A. Williams and Charles F. Pennachio, The Philippine-American War: A Unit of Study for Grades 7-12

  • James M. Banner, "Teachers of Ambition"

  • Joel Schrock, selections from The Gilded Age

  • Paul A. Gagnon, "Worms in the Apple: History Teacher Stress"

  • Richard Rothstein, "Going Beyond Mere Facts in the Study of History," article on Sam Wineburg featured in the New York Times

  • Walter Fleming, "Federal Indian Policy: A Summary" from Enduring Vision

  • Warren Zimmerman, "Beyond American Boundaries," from The 1900's, edited by Myra Immell


The Photography of American Indians/Edward S. Curtis (A Selected Book List by Mick Gidley)

  • Jane Alison, ed., Native Nations: Journeys in American Photography (London: Barbican Art Gallery/ Booth-Clibborn Editions, 1998). Hard to find in US, but an excellent book, for both the past and the present. Numerous illustrations.

  • Alfred L. Bush & Lee Clark Mitchell, The Photograph and the American Indian (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1994).

  • Wlliam Farr, The Reservation Blackfeet, 1882-1945: A Photographic History of Cultural Survival (Seattle: U of Washington P, 1984).


This is a good example of the various books that document a specific people; others include Masayesva and Younger below.

  • Paula R. Fleming & Judith L. Luskey, The North American Indians in Early Photographs (NY: Barnes & Noble, 1986).

  • Paula R. Fleming & Judith L. Luskey, Grand Endeavors of American Indian Photography (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution P, 1993).

  • Mick Gidley, With One Sky Above Us: Life on an Indian Reservation at the Turn of the Century (NY: George Putnam’s Sons, 1979). Includes amateur photos by Dr. Edward Latham.

  • Tim Johnson, ed., Spirit Capture: Photographs from the National Museum of the American Indian (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution P, 1998). Includes images by Native photographers.

  • Lucy R. Lippard, ed., Partial Recall (NY: New P, 1992). Includes images and commentary by Native people.

  • Lucy Lippard, Mixed Blessings: New Art in Multicultural America (1990; NY: New P, 2000).

  • Victor Masayesva & Erin Younger, Hopi Photographers, Hopi Images (Tucson: Sun Tracks and University of Arizona P, 1983).

  • Martha A. Sandweiss, Print the Legend: Photography and the American West ( New Haven & London : Yale UP, 2002). A major work that sets the photography of Indians in the context of western imagery in general.

  • Joanna C. Scherer, Indians: The Great Photographs that Reveal North American Indian Life, 1847-1929, from the Unique Collection of the Smithsonian Institution (NY: Bonanza, 1973).

  • Alan Trachtenberg, Shades of Hiawatha (NY: Hill & Wang, 2004). Sets photography of Indians within a larger cultural context.

  • William H. Truettner, ed., The West as America (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution P, 1992). A large-scale treatment of the representation of the West in art and photography.

  • Gerald Vizenor, Fugitive Poses: Native American Indian Scenes of Absence and Presence (Lincoln & London: U of Nebraska P, 1998). This book by an Indian author sets photography of Indians within a larger cultural context.


Edward S. Curtis

  • Edward S. Curtis, The North American Indian: The Complete Portfolios (Cologne, NY, London: Taschen, 1997).
    A handy collection of all the larger images. Several libraries also hold the Johnson complete reprint edition of the text and pictures.

  • Edward S. Curtis, The Plains Indian Photographs of Edward S. Curtis ( Lincoln , NE & London : U of Nebraska P, 2000). Includes essays by Martha Sandweiss, Mick Gidley and Duane Niatum.

  • Mick Gidley, Edward S. Curtis and The North American Indian, Incorporated (NY: Cambridge UP, 1998; pb 2000).

  • Mick Gidley, ed., Edward S. Curtis and The North American Indian Project in the Field ( Lincoln , NE and London : U of Nebraska P, 2003).

  • T. C. McLuhan, ed., Touch the Earth (NY: Scribner’s, 1973). Puts photographs by Curtis alongside extracts from Indian speeches, etc.


There are also some older works that treat Curtis in a more heroic fashion, for example:

  • Ralph Andrews, Edward S. Curtis (Seattle: Superior, 1964).

  • Florence Curtis Graybill and Victor Boesen, Edward S. Curtis: Visions of a Vanishing Race (NY: Crowell, 1976).

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